My students’ need for affordable education encouraged me to take this initiative and make this into a reality. First, I want to thank them for being my inspiration on this project. Then, I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to Jessica Kirschner, OER Librarian at VCU, for working tirelessly with me on this project. Without her support, motivation, and enthusiasm, this project would not have come to fruition. I also want to thank Janet Reid, Business Research Librarian at VCU, for assisting me with editing end-of-chapter exercises. Additionally, I appreciate the help from ALT Lab/Online@VCU in hosting a platform that is easy for the students to navigate. I also want to thank my Department at VCU for being supportive in every possible way.

Finally, I want to thank my caring, loving, and supportive family for willing to help with the household activities while I worked on this project. My heartfelt thanks to my son for creating the cover page for this textbook.


This book contains material from three open textbooks as follows:

“Fundamentals of Business, Second Edition (2018)” by Stephen J. Skripak (VT Publishing) is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

  • Chapter 1, Sections 1.1-1.4
  • Chapter 2, Sections 2.1-2.5
  • Chapter 3, Section 3.1
  • Chapter 4, Sections 4.1-4.6

“Introduction to Business” by Lawrence J. Gitman, et al (OpenStax) is licensed under CC BY 4.0

  • Chapter 1, Section 1.5
  • Chapter 3, Section 3.9 (Hot Links Address Book)
  • Chapter 4, Section 4.7
  • Chapter 5, Section 5.8 (Hot Links Address Book)
  • Chapter 11, Section 11.8 (Hot Links Address Book)
  • Chapter 12

“Exploring Business “ by University of Minnesota is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

  • Chapter 2, Section 2.6
  • Chapter 3, Sections 3.2-3.9
  • Chapter 5, Sections 5.1-5.9
  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapter 8
  • Chapter 9
  • Chapter 10
  • Chapter 11, Sections 11.1-11.7
  • Chapter 13
  • Chapter 14
  • Chapter `15
  • Chapter 16


The cover was created by Aryan Misra using:


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Foundations of Business by Manika Avasthi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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